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Articles of the Treaty of Paris 1898

On April 11, 1898, President William McKinley asked Congress for permission to end the fighting in Cuba between the rebels and the Spanish armed forces and to establish a “stable government” that would “maintain order” and ensure the “peace, tranquility, and security” of Cuban and U.S. citizens on the island. On April 20, the U.S. Congress passed a joint resolution recognizing Cuban independence, calling on the Spanish government to relinquish control of the island, renouncing any U.S. intention to annex Cuba, and authorizing McKinley to take any military measures it deemed necessary to guarantee Cuba`s independence. In the early morning of May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led a U.S. naval squadron in Manila Bay in the Philippines. She destroyed the Spanish fleet at anchor in two hours before interrupting the Battle of Manila Bay to order her crew a second breakfast. In total, fewer than 10 American sailors were lost, while Spanish losses were estimated at more than 370. Manila itself was occupied by US troops in August. Although the conference discussed Cuba and debt issues, the main conflict concerned the situation in the Philippines.

Admiral Dewey`s victory came as a great surprise and marked the entry of the United States into the Pacific. The Spanish commissioners argued that Manila had capitulated after the armistice and that, therefore, the Philippines could not be considered a war conquest, but they eventually gave in because they had no other choice, and the United States eventually paid Spain $20 million to own the Philippines. The islands of Puerto Rico and Guam were also placed under U.S. control, and Spain renounced its claims to Cuba. The treaty was signed on December 10, 1898. Article V of the Protocol of Peace between the United States and Spain of 12 August 1898[12] read as follows: Spanish subjects, indigenous peoples of the peninsula, who reside in the territory over which Spain renounces or cedes its sovereignty by this Treaty, may remain in or withdraw from that territory, retaining in both cases all their property rights, including the right to sell or dispose of such property or its proceeds; and they also have the right to engage in their industry, trade and liberal professions, subject to the laws that apply to other foreigners. If they remain in the territory, they may maintain their loyalty to the Crown of Spain by making a declaration before a court within one year from the date of exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty of their decision to preserve such loyalty; in the absence of such a declaration, they shall be deemed to have renounced it and to have taken the nationality of the territory in which they may reside. The Treaty of Paris (1898) was the peace treaty signed by Spain and the United States on December 10, 1898, ending the Spanish-American War. The terms of the treaty also ended the era of Spanish imperialism and established the United States as a world power. The treaty was finally adopted on 6 February 1899 by 57 votes to 27, just above the required two-thirds majority.

[27] Only two Republicans voted against ratification: George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts and Eugene Pryor Hale of Maine. Senator Nelson W. Aldrich had opposed entry into the Spanish-American War, but had supported McKinley after it began. It played a central role in obtaining a two-thirds majority of the Treaty. [28] The Treaty of Paris marked the end of the Spanish Empire, with the exception of a few small possessions in North Africa and several islands and territories around the Gulf of Guinea, including Africa. It marked the beginning of the United States as a world power. Many supporters of the war rejected the treaty, which became one of the main problems of the 1900 election when it was rejected by Democrat William Jennings Bryan, who opposed imperialism. [3] Republican President William McKinley supported the treaty and was easily re-elected. [4] As debate in the Senate continued, Andrew Carnegie and former President Grover Cleveland asked the Senate to reject the treaty.

Both men strongly opposed such imperialist policies and participated in the American Anti-Imperialist League, along with other prominent members such as Mark Twain and Samuel Gompers. [9] In the U.S. Senate, there were four major schools of thought on U.S. imperialism that influenced the debate over the ratification of the treaty. [24] Republicans generally supported the treaty, but opponents aimed either to thwart the treaty or to exclude the provision that provided for the acquisition of the Philippines. Most Democrats were also in favor of expansion, especially in the South. A minority of Democrats also supported the treaty on the basis of ending the war and granting independence to Cuba and the Philippines. During the Senate debate on ratification, Senators George Frisbie Hoar and George Graham Vest were outspoken opponents. Hoar said: “Spain will evacuate the Philippines as well as the island of Guam on terms similar to those agreed by the commissioners appointed to organize the evacuation of Puerto Rico and other islands in the West Indies under the August 12 protocol following the exchange of ratifications of that treaty. 1898, which must remain in force until its provisions are fully implemented. The McKinley administration also used the war as a pretext to annex the independent state of Hawaii.

In 1893, a group of Hawaii-based planters and businessmen led a coup against Queen Liliuokalani and formed a new government. They immediately called for annexation by the United States, but President Grover Cleveland rejected their demands. By 1898, however, President McKinley and the American public were more supportive of acquiring the islands. Proponents of annexation argued that Hawaii was crucial to the United States. Economy that it would serve as a strategic base that could help protect U.S. interests in Asia, and that other nations intend to take control of the islands if the U.S. did not do so. At McKinley`s request, a joint congressional resolution made Hawaii a U.S. territory on August 12, 1898. The legal proceedings under way at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty in the territories over which Spain renounces or cedes its sovereignty are determined according to the following rules: The interest of the United States in the purchase of Cuba had begun well before 1898.

After the Ten Years` War, U.S. sugar companies bought large tracts of land in Cuba. Changes to the U.S. sugar tariff in favor of locally grown beet sugar in 1895 helped promote the revival of revolutionary zeal. At the time, the United States had invested more than $50 million in Cuba, and annual trade, mainly in sugar, was worth twice as much. Zeal for war had grown in the United States, despite President Grover Cleveland`s proclamation of neutrality on June 12, 1895. But the feeling of entering the conflict grew in the United States when General Valeriano Weyler began to implement a policy of reconcentration that took the population to central locations guarded by Spanish troops and placed the whole country under martial law in February 1896. On December 7, President Cleveland retracted his statement that the United States could intervene if Spain did not end the crisis in Cuba.

President William McKinley, who met on September 4. It was inaugurated in March 1897 and was even more eager to get involved, especially after the New York Journal published a copy of a letter from Spanish Foreign Minister Enrique Dupuy de Lôme on February 9, 1898, criticizing the American president. Events progressed rapidly after the explosion aboard the U.S.S. Maine on February 15. On March 9, Congress passed a bill that provides fifty million dollars to strengthen the military force. On March 28, the U.S. Court of Naval Investigation found that a mine had detonated Maine. On April 21, President McKinley ordered a blockade of Cuba, and four days later, the United States declared war. After the signing of this treaty, the United States will return to Spain at its own expense the Spanish soldiers who were taken prisoner of war during the conquest of Manila by American forces.

The coat of arms of the soldiers concerned will be returned to them. The Spanish-American War began on April 25, 1898 due to a series of growing disputes between the two nations and ended on December 10, 1898 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. This caused Spain to lose control of the remnants of its overseas empire. [5] After the independence of much of the Latin American continent, Cuba attempted a revolution in 1868-1878 and again in the 1890s under the leadership of José Martí or “El Apóstol”. Martí returned to Cuba and initially took part in the fighting against the Spanish government, but was killed on May 19, 1895. .

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